In the coming decades, the employment issue in all its diversity will occupy the center of attention of young people who embark on their employment journey. Career counselors will be an inseparable part of the world of any person who sets out on the way of employment. Research shows that young people of the generations Y and Z will replace between six to eight occupations / careers during their lifetime. Who will be there for them? Who knows the way?
The absence of a need to follow a normative path leads to the personal confusion and distress of adolescents. Another new developmental phase was created in the transition from adolescence to full maturity and named: “Young adults", “Suspended Adulthood”, “Post-adolescence” and more. There is a consensus among all theorists that the tools we are familiar with in career planning and choosing a professional identity need to be rejuvenated.
No one knows more about the right way to do it, and most studies in this field are surveys or retrospective questionnaires made by "convince" populations of the researcher. The attempts to assist in seeking help for individual is adapted to the abilities of the therapist / trainer / counselor. It is difficult to find an integrative post-modern approach with practical evidence-based tools. Recent approaches support the need for an objective, evidence-based methods assisting young people.
In Israel, in the research I have conducted for my doctoral dissertation on the subject; Occupational / Personal Identity Confusion for the Ages 23-35 Years Old in Israeli Society (in paper). It address the confusion of young adults in Israel due to lack of personal and occupational identity.
For example, it was found that parents had been giving dated advises related to their past life experience, and they advised the confused young to have useless academic studies: "you will learn no matter what you chose, submit now...". This is a correct advice to the life of 30 or 40 years ago, when academic degree assured occupational stability, high wages, satisfaction and fulfillment.
Theories of development propose a division into four subgroups of young people:
Achieve Achievers or Identity Achievement, those who have gone through the transition crisis from adolescence to adulthood and have formulated a philosophy of life and a full personal commitment to realizing it. In the past, they were not a target audience for career counseling, and are now appearing in counseling in the 40s. Grant (2006).
Opportunist Achievers, or Foreclosure, are often found to be "obedient children" who have chosen a considerate employment. The guiding principle of these young people is being professionals in a- cannot-be-mistaken profession, such as: law, engineering, medicine, psychology, and other considerations of convenience, money, prestige, status rather than a deep personal identity.
Today, this population is at risk, because when they encounter a blockage, they do not know how to extricate themselves, and they happen not to ask the right questions. They might be in NEET- Not in Education, Employment or Training. Gelbart (2013) estimates that 290 million normative youth worldwide are quite lost. They were not populations that needed counseling in the past and today they are, but not for a job counseling or re-placement, but for building a career that would match their skills. He estimates that another 75 million young people are in this situation but are not registered. According to the ILO, every year 4-5% of educated young people will become NEET.
Procrastinators- Moratorium, Young adults who are in the process of self-examination and find it difficult to decide about their future, which are the classic customers of all diagnostic and placement institutes. Today, their situation is more difficult because the 'traditional counselling' that continue to be standards and far from the personal, emotional and employment reality.
Drifting – Diffusion, Those who have never known what they really want to do. They prefer underemployment, freedom, unemployment, temporary jobs, and so forth. They are in constant crisis.